The Management of Co-Morbidities in Patients with Heart Failure – Angina and Coronary Disease

Ilaria Spoletini, Petar Seferovic


Co-morbidities are particularly relevant in the management of HF as they may confound HF diagnosis, worsen symptomatology, impact quality of life and aggravate the prognosis. According to the most recent European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines, treatment of co- morbidities is an essential element of the comprehensive care of HF. Angina and coronary artery disease (CAD), in particular are common disorders associated with HF. The pharmacological and surgical management of angina according to the ESC guidelines is reviewed in this article.


Cardiology; Coronary artery disease; Heart failure; Angina; Guidelines

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