The Management of Co-Morbidities in Patients with Heart Failure – Potassium Balance

Ewa Jankowska


Both hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia are common in HF patients. They are each associated both with HF and with the many drugs used for HF. They are important as they both can aggravate ventricular arrhythmias, both can cause symptoms in HF patients and in the case of hyperkalaemia in particular, are a common reason not to prescribe or reduce the dose of or even cease use of effective medication with life- prolonging benefits in HFrEF, including ACEI’s and MRA’s. Treatment optiosn for bioth hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia are discussed including the emerging evidence that agents such as patiromer may be safe and effective agents to be used long-term in high-risk patients with HF to allow them to take doses of RAAS inhibitors in particular which they otherwise may not be able to take. This might allow them to continue to receive the mortality morbidity benefits these treatments confer.


Chronic Kidney Disease; Heart failure; Hyperkalaemia; Hypokalaemia; Guidelines

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