Acute Pulmonary Embolism and Paradoxical Embolism in Patients with Patent Foramen Ovale: to Close or Not to Close…That is the Question!

Marco Zuin, Gianluca Rigatelli


Nowadays, the treatment of patent foramen ovale (PFO) after acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remains matter of speculation. Absence of both randomized trials and recommendations in current international guidelines complicate the decisions making in such patients. In the present manuscript we discuss about the reasons for which PFO should be closed after acute PE.


Patent Foramen Ovale; Pulmonary Embolism; Endovascular treatment

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